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Up and running with AWS Network Firewall - Part 1

Up and running with AWS Network Firewall - Part 1

Stephen Jones's photo
Stephen Jones
·Mar 13, 2023·

9 min read

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This post is the first in a series to share my learnings as I get to grips with AWS Network Firewall.

See the second part here

There are many use cases; however, in this series, I'll focus on the following.

Inspection VPC

This pattern will place the firewall between two VPCs and inspect any traffic that passes between the two.

As Network Firewall doesn't support VPC Peering, Transit Gateway needs to be implemented, which isn't bad as it's like a router on steroids! See an overlay use case with TGW here.

If you deal with multiple accounts and many VPCs, you will never regret implementing it.

Multi VPCs

Inspection VPC with Internet Egress

This pattern will enable a central egress point to the internet via NAT gateway, allowing us to allow or block traffic to the internet from instances in private subnets across one or many VPCs.

Multi VPC Firewall

Inspection VPC for North-South traffic across cloud providers.

What the hell does North-South mean, I hear you say. Wikipedia defines it as

"Network traffic flowing into and out of a data center"

I feel that description is a little dated; however, it makes sense if we treat AWS as one data center and "other" cloud provider as another.

This pattern will establish a Site-to-Site VPN with the "other" cloud provider and ensure all traffic that passes between providers, North-South, will go via the firewall.

North South Firewalling

Asymmetric Routing

The above diagrams are a simple representation; however, in an Enterprise environment, instances are spread across multiple availability zones so enabling traffic to pass across AZs is necessary.

As detailed in the AWS docs here, by default, Transit Gateway maintains Availability Zone affinity, which means that it uses the same Availability Zone to forward the traffic from where it entered the transit gateway.

The above is perfect if we don't have an inspection VPC in place; however, as soon as we place an inline firewall, traffic must flow through the same interfaces on the firewall, or it gets silently dropped.

Thankfully the product teams at AWS have made life easy and enabled a flag we can set called Transit Gateway Appliance Mode.

In Part 2, we will go through the setup of the above patterns. However, as a parting gift, here is a CloudFormation template to deploy the Inspection VPC.

I hope this helps someone else!

Cheers

For more articles on AWS Firewall click here!

Inspection VPC CloudFormation

---

AWSTemplateFormatVersion: 2010-09-09
Description: AWS Firewall & NAT Gateway Inspection VPC

Parameters:
  Name:
    Type: String
    Description: 'VPC Name used throughout tag names'
    Default: 'Inspection'

  Region:
    Type: String
    Description: 'Region'
    Default: 'ap-southeast-2'

  TransitGatewayId:
    Type: String
    Description: 'Transit Gateway Id'

  VPCCIDR:
    Type: String
    Description: 'VPC IP address space, RFC 1918 address space only.'
    Default: '10.147.0.0/18'

Resources:
  VPC:
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPC
    Properties:
      CidrBlock: !Ref 'VPCCIDR'
      EnableDnsSupport: true
      EnableDnsHostnames: true
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'VPC']]

  VPCIGW:
    Type: AWS::EC2::InternetGateway
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [' !Ref 'Name', 'IGW']]

  VPCIGWAttachGateway:
    Type: AWS::EC2::VPCGatewayAttachment
    Properties:
      InternetGatewayId: !Ref 'VPCIGW'
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  # Transit Gateway Endpoint Subnets, ACLs, Route Tables, Associations
  TGWEndpointACL:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TGWEndpointACLEgressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: TGWEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: true
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  TGWEndpointACLIngressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: TGWEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: false
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  # Transit Gateway Endpoints Availability Zone 1
  TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW', '2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TWGNFWRouteAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'a:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ1

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'a']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [0, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW-2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ1'

  TGWEndpointNACLAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointACL'

  # Transit Gateway Endpoints Availability Zone 2
  TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW', '2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TWGNFWRouteAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'b:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ2

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'b']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [1, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW-2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ2'

  TGWEndpointNACLAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointACL'

  # Transit Gateway Endpoints Availability Zone 3
  TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW', '2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TWGNFWRouteAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'c:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ3

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'c']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [2, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'TGW-2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  TGWEndpointSubnetAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointRouteTableAZ3'

  TGWEndpointNACLAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'TGWEndpointACL'

  # Firewall Endpoint Subnets, ACLs, Route Tables, Associations
  NFWEndpointACL:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWEndpointACLEgressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: NFWEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: true
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  NFWEndpointACLIngressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: NFWEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: false
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  # Firewall Endpoints Availability Zone 1
  NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW', '2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWNATRouteAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      NatGatewayId: !Ref NatGwAZ1
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ1

  NFWTGWRouteAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    DependsOn: TransitGatewayAttachment
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      TransitGatewayId: !Ref TransitGatewayId
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ1

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'a']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [3, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW-2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ1'

  NFWEndpointNACLAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointACL'

  # Firewall Endpoints Availability Zone 2
  NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW', '2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWNATRouteAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      NatGatewayId: !Ref NatGwAZ2
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ2

  NFWTGWRouteAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    DependsOn: TransitGatewayAttachment
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      TransitGatewayId: !Ref TransitGatewayId
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ2

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'b']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [4, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW-2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ2'

  NFWEndpointNACLAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointACL'

  # Firewall Endpoints Availability Zone 3
  NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW', '2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWNATRouteAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      NatGatewayId: !Ref NatGwAZ3
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ3

  NFWTGWRouteAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    DependsOn: TransitGatewayAttachment
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      TransitGatewayId: !Ref TransitGatewayId
      RouteTableId: !Ref NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ3

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'c']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [5, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW-2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NFWEndpointSubnetAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointRouteTableAZ3'

  NFWEndpointNACLAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NFWEndpointACL'

  # NAT Endpoint Subnets, ACLs, Route Tables, Associations
  NATEndpointACL:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAcl
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATEndpointACLEgressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: NATEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: true
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  NATEndpointACLIngressEntry:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NetworkAclEntry
    Properties:
      NetworkAclId:
        Ref: NATEndpointACL
      RuleNumber: 100
      Protocol: -1
      RuleAction: allow
      Egress: false
      CidrBlock: 0.0.0.0/0

  # NAT Endpoints Availability Zone 1
  NATEndpointRouteTableAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT', '2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATInternetRouteAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      GatewayId: !Ref VPCIGW
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ1

  NATNFWRouteAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'a:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ1

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'a']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [6, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2a']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NATEndpointRouteTableAZ1'

  NATEndpointNACLAZ1Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ1'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NATEndpointACL'

  NATGwEipAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::EIP
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc

  NatGwAZ1:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NatGateway
    Properties:
      AllocationId: !GetAtt
        - NATGwEipAZ1
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref NATEndpointSubnetAZ1
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2a']]

  # NAT Endpoints Availability Zone 2
  NATEndpointRouteTableAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT', '2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATInternetRouteAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      GatewayId: !Ref VPCIGW
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ2

  NATNFWRouteAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'b:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ2

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'b']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [7, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2b']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NATEndpointRouteTableAZ2'

  NATEndpointNACLAZ2Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ2'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NATEndpointACL'

  NATGwEipAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::EIP
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc

  NatGwAZ2:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NatGateway
    Properties:
      AllocationId: !GetAtt
        - NATGwEipAZ2
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref NATEndpointSubnetAZ2
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2b']]

  # NAT Endpoints Availability Zone 3
  NATEndpointRouteTableAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::RouteTable
    Properties:
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT', '2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATInternetRouteAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '0.0.0.0/0'
      GatewayId: !Ref VPCIGW
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ3

  NATNFWRouteAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Route
    Properties:
      DestinationCidrBlock: '10.0.0.0/8'
      VpcEndpointId: !Select [ 0, !Split [ ',', !Select [ 1 , !Split [ 'c:', !Join [ ',', !GetAtt Firewall.EndpointIds ] ] ] ] ]
      RouteTableId: !Ref NATEndpointRouteTableAZ3

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::Subnet
    Metadata:
      cfn-lint:
        config:
          ignore_checks:
            - W3010
    Properties:
      AvailabilityZone: !Join ['', [!Ref 'Region', 'c']]
      CidrBlock:
        !Select [8, !Cidr [!GetAtt VPC.CidrBlock, 9, 6]]
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2c']]
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

  NATEndpointSubnetAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetRouteTableAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      RouteTableId: !Ref 'NATEndpointRouteTableAZ3'

  NATEndpointNACLAZ3Assoc:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SubnetNetworkAclAssociation
    Properties:
      SubnetId: !Ref 'NATEndpointSubnetAZ3'
      NetworkAclId: !Ref 'NATEndpointACL'

  NATGwEipAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::EIP
    Properties:
      Domain: vpc

  NatGwAZ3:
    Type: AWS::EC2::NatGateway
    Properties:
      AllocationId: !GetAtt
        - NATGwEipAZ3
        - AllocationId
      SubnetId: !Ref NATEndpointSubnetAZ3
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NAT-2c']]

  BaseDefaultSecurityGroupEgress:
    Type: AWS::EC2::SecurityGroupEgress
    Properties:
      GroupId: !GetAtt VPC.DefaultSecurityGroup
      IpProtocol: '-1'
      CidrIp: !Ref VPCCIDR

  Firewall:
    Type: AWS::NetworkFirewall::Firewall
    Properties:
      FirewallName: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW']]
      FirewallPolicyArn: !Ref FirewallPolicy
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'
      SubnetMappings:
        - SubnetId: !Ref NFWEndpointSubnetAZ1
        - SubnetId: !Ref NFWEndpointSubnetAZ2
        - SubnetId: !Ref NFWEndpointSubnetAZ3
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: !Join ['-', [!Ref 'Name', 'NFW']]

  FirewallPolicy:
    Type: AWS::NetworkFirewall::FirewallPolicy
    Properties:
      FirewallPolicyName: 'Provider-Main'
      FirewallPolicy:
        StatelessDefaultActions:
          - 'aws:forward_to_sfe'
        StatelessFragmentDefaultActions:
          - 'aws:forward_to_sfe'

  TransitGatewayAttachment:
    Type: AWS::EC2::TransitGatewayAttachment
    Properties:
      SubnetIds:
        - !Ref TGWEndpointSubnetAZ1
        - !Ref TGWEndpointSubnetAZ2
        - !Ref TGWEndpointSubnetAZ3
      Tags:
        - Key: Name
          Value: Provider-Inspection-VPC
      TransitGatewayId: !Ref TransitGatewayId
      VpcId: !Ref 'VPC'

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